Home > Library > NESTEC Paper: A Plastic Road From A Garbage Patch; The Modern World Of Plastics

NESTEC Paper: A Plastic Road From A Garbage Patch; The Modern World Of Plastics

ABSTRACT

In every industry in the world, over various areas of application, plastics have become one of the most relevant raw materials. They are used in everything from construction pipes and mobile phones to planes, consumer utensils and clothing, as well as being the primary material used for food packaging. Plastics are everywhere these days, and exist in some form in every industry, but when were modern forms of these polymer-derived materials first invented, and why have they become so popular?

The prevalence of plastics has had unintended effects on the environment, as a significant amount of human-caused land and water pollution results from plastic waste while the effects of microplastics have become a global health concern. Despite this, the amount of plastic produced annually is only expected to increase in the future.

In the coastal and riverine regions of Nigeria such as Lagos, ineffective waste control systems and limited recycling procedures mean that many gutters and canals created for water drainage have been filled with plastic waste which impedes water flow, causing floods within communities during rainy seasons.

This study examines the relevance of plastics as a key pillar of the world’s economic and manufacturing climate as well as the concerns and problems associated with what has become one of the most important socio-economic challenges facing the world today. More importantly, it also introduces and discusses potential solutions to these problems.
 

Keywords: plastic; microplastic; pollution; polymer; recycling.

Author:Oluwawemimo Oluwagbemiga Ogunmoyela

Click Nestec Paper Below For Full Paper and make your COMMENTS

NESTEC Paper

2
0

55 thoughts on “NESTEC Paper: A Plastic Road From A Garbage Patch; The Modern World Of Plastics

  1. Nice work brother. I do believe that you will have good knowledge of the chemical compositions of these plastics. Please, do well to represent the chemical equation of a polymer that leads to the formation of this plastics. Also, give a vivid explanation of each steps. Thanks

    0

    0
    1. Thank you very much for your question and comment. There are several thousand different kinds of plastic, and each of these have their own distinct chemical equations. That means that, chemically, even if plastics look alike, if they were made by different manufacturers then they would have different chemical equations.

      0

      0
  2. Thank you very much for your question and comment. There are several thousand different kinds of plastic, and each of these have their own distinct chemical equations. That means that, chemically, even if plastics look alike, if they were made by different manufacturers then they would have different chemical equations.

    1

    0
  3. Nice work Friend. Plastic waste is indeed a menace to the world. there is this young guy that recentky discovered a method to degrade plastic with some sort of laboratory prepared chemicals to ameliorate the issue of microplastic on human health, i think the guy won the 2019 world scince competiton, heard of him?

    0

    0
    1. That seems very interesting, Chukwudike. Thank you for reading my paper and for your comment.

      Do you know where I could read more about this?

      0

      0
  4. thats a very great piece there

    but then in our world of today, especially with relevance to the needs of Nigeria,as the essay ought to solve. Do you think plastic roads is what we need now in this country? You used your illustrations well and i really commend you on that

    Plastic, as you will agree with me is not so much efficient for road construction and with the rapid degrading of our roads in Nigeria today which are being constructed with bitumens, cement and even bricks as the case may be are still not efficient enough to the Nigerian system

    COULD YOU THROW MORE LIGHTS INTO THIS FOR ME?

    0

    0
    1. Thank you for reading my paper, Frankline.
      You’ve made some good comments.

      One of your questions was ‘Do you think plastic roads are what we need in this country?’ and you followed that up with saying that plastic is not effecient for road construction.

      To answer your question, you need to first understand that Nigeria has one of the worst road networks in the world. 15% of tarred roads means that 85% of roads are untarred.
      Interstate highways are especially dangerous at night because they are riddled with potholes and vehicles have to move slowly on them. Some of them have become notorious for kidnappings.
      Everyone uses roads everyday, so it follows that roads are very important. If much better roads can be designed, roads that can be fixed more quickly, last much longer, help to solve the important problem of what to do with all the plastic waste accumulating in the environment, and are even cheaper to make than before, then this is a very important solution to consider.

      Also, you stated that plastics are ineffecient for road construction. What standards do you define effeciency by?

      Plastics are very cheap to produce, and are already present as waste in large amounts in the world so there isn’t any need to make more. Plastics are also extremely durable and they will survive abuse. Mixing these plastics with asphalt will produce a composite that makes longer lasting roads. The plastics make them tougher as they become less brittle and better at absorbing shocks from heavy loads. This is what makes them resistant to potholes.

      If a product is much better at it’s function than another product, while being much better for the environment and even cheaper to produce, it’s hard to understand why you say it is not ‘effecient’.

      Have I shed some more light on this for you?

      0

      0
  5. Good morning, sir. As I have gone through your paper, I have understand your goodwill to the environment, but I there are some few things I would like you to shed more light on.

    1. Plastic roads need compatible plastic as plastics of different kind may phase-seperate when melted leading to structural weakness which in turn would render the roads a total failure. How do you think we can address this?

    2. The plastics employed in the road can break down into microplastics which can find their way into soil and bodies of water. It is a known fact that plastics in water bodies decompose (over a long period of time) and release toxic chemicals such as bisphenol. Tell me how this can be addressed?

    Have a nice day ahead

    0

    0
  6. Thank you for reading my article Ahmad, and for your questions.

    The typical method by which plastics are currently recycled these days involves melting them and molding them with other plastics. And because these plastics are chemically different, they have will have different melting points.

    However, because these melting points are much higher than temperatures that will normally occur in nature, there is little danger of these materials simply melting away.

    Furthermore, during the process of recycling, these plastics are typically treated to make them tougher and more fire resistant.

    Bitumen, a key component of the asphalt used to make roads today, has a melting point of only about 115 Celsius. Asphalt, like other materials typically softens when hot and becomes brittle and hard when cold. Being brittle means that it’s more likely to crack under pressure. And one of the major reasons why bitumen is widely used for road construction is that its melting point is high enough that it can be safely used in normal environments and low enough that it doesn’t require excessive amounts of energy to melt down and use. Simply put, bitumen has not been the perfect road making ingredient as much as it has been the most convenient one.

    About your second question, it is true that making plastics into roads may not stop bits of them breaking off and forming microplastics even though these plastics are treated to make them tougher.

    But is the alternative to simply leave things as they are as plastic waste in landfills and the ocean build up?

    The plastic problem is undoubtedly a complex one and while as of now there is no perfect answer, the important thing is to point a light at this problem so that world takes it seriously before it gets even more out of hand.

    Any options like this one that could give us an upper hand in the war against plastics should be carefully considered.

    0

    0
  7. This is essential to our nation’s development. But sire, is there any reason why you sections your abstract and it wasn’t evenly distributed between the margins? I wish to know if it’s the actual standard.

    I was reading your work, then I discovered that Bakelite was invented by Leo Baekeland, how did you know this sire?

    The data used in plotting the graph tagged figure 1 in your work, how did you obtain them. Or did you download the picture online?

    What referencing style did you use and what is the link between the referencing style used and your in-text citations?

    What is the rate at Which plastics are consumed in Nigeria, and do you think it will be enough to build roads if implemented?

    Can we reinforce plastics to build bridges?

    Lastly, from your work I was able to understand that plastic can be used to build roads but you didn’t tell us the processes involved in achieve it. Also, what makes your work different from other publications that has said similar things?

    Anticipating your response. Thanks alot

    0

    0
    1. Thank you for reading my paper Harrison, and for your comments and questions.

      Your first question was on whether the format of my abstract was the actual standard. While there are actual standards for how a technical report should be sectioned, the author does control some of the narrative and decides how their work should be written.
      My report was structured in a way that would make it easier to read.

      As for your concerns about how I obtained the information in the paper, all my sources are listed on the reference page. They are numerous, but the answers you seek are among them.

      The majority of my sources were not other technical papers or scholarly works, but single link articles and different pieces of information written on diverse platforms across the web. Because of this, I changed my referencing style to make these links accessible to anyone who desired to access them.

      Can we reinforce plastics to build bridges?
      We don’t currently use asphalt to build bridges, we use them to surface roads on bridges. Only the surface layer of roads will have asphalt and plastics layered over them.

      The purpose of my research, as stated in the abstract, was to examine the problems and concerns associated with plastics and profess potential solutions. Examining the magnitude of the problem, and the feasibility of whatever we wanted to do to solve it, was my objective. This is very new approach to a problem that few governments take very seriously, and this means that widespread use has not been adopted. It also means that there are currently different methods by which plastic roads have been manufactured, as was explained in the paper.

      What makes my paper different to other published works that have said similar things? That question suggests that you’ve seen other publications that have said similar things. Could you send a link here so I could see them and answer your question?

      Thanks again for your questions Harrison, I await your response

      0

      0
      1. It’s cool you responded.

        Authors do control some of the narratives and decide how their work should be writing in alignment with the already established standards of writing anything.

        We make reference to standards not because it’s easier or difficult to adhere to but because it ensures homogeneity and continuity/sustainability, otherwise, I would write anything and tell you it was done to make it easier for me/people to read

        In writing: anything you use in your work if your not sure of the citation you can say, “according to research….”
        But most of the texts from others used, I could not see a link that connects the in-text and it’s reference. I saw numbers but what actually connects does numbers to your main work? I didn’t see. You did the work yourself, so you’ll know what am talking about.

        The answer as to what makes your work unique is simply in your objectives which you stated. Telling me to send links is a poor approach as to dealing with such issue. You can browse with your phone and obtain info. What am trying to say here is: when ever an engineer wants to solve a problem, he/she should ask, has someone elsewhere solved this particular problem? So you won’t struggle to solve something that has a solution already.
        If it has a solution, then ask if the solution is safe, functional, and economical if yes then change plans. If not compare before proceeding….

        You already pointed out that the purpose of your work, suggesting for links means you didnt do a good research before starting your work.
        Anyway, thanks for the response!

        0

        0
        1. To start with, I will directy address your very first question and say that there are no writing standards for abstracts that say that they must be evenly distributed between the margins.

          For technical reports, as much as being official writings that demonstrate the results of research, they are also bodies of work created by authors.

          And yes, standards do exist for the sake of homogenuity and continuity in writing, but they mostly serve as reference points. They do not exist as and are not supposed to be the only ways to do things. This is why referencing styles are commonly used with modifications.

          You are right to crique my in-text referencing though. I could have done better in creating links between the text and my sources as you said.

          That being said, you understand that technical reports exist to educate and inform. If the creator of a body of work feels that this process can be made better by going against the grain in some areas, then definitely some leeway is allowed.

          After all, what would become of science and the quest for knowledge without the willingness to see if other things can work better?

          To address your statement on what makes my paper unique, I remind you that, having read my paper, you should realize that plastic pollution is a problem that a large faction of the world simply ignores, and that potential applications for plastic waste have only recently begun to be taken seriously.

          To ask what ‘makes my paper unique’ would be to imply that the results of my research is information that is widely known to the public or at least to you. It could also imply that it is knowledge you gained through similar papers.

          You stated this “What am trying to say here is: when ever an engineer wants to solve a problem, he/she should ask, has someone elsewhere solved this particular problem?”.

          If that was what you meant, then you should have explained as above in your initial question.

          You’ve done very helpful analysis of my work, Harrison. Thank you.

          0

          0
    1. Thank you for your comment and question James. Recycled plastics have actually been used to make furniture and other interesting things.

      0

      0
  8. Nice work Wemimo.
    But I need clarification on these
    1. Whilst reading through your work, I realized that you didn’t make mention of factors of safety because I believe plastic undergo expansion due to heating and with no consideration about this expansion it can cause several damages affect lives.

    2. Hope it will last?😂

    Thanks and I look forward to your answer.

    Nice work though.

    0

    0
    1. Thank you for reading my paper Oscar, and for your questions and comments. Plastic, like asphalt has a relatively low binomial expansion factor, when you compare it with materials like metals and gases. It can be used safely under normal conditions.

      If you read the paper, you would have seen that roads made with plastics actually last longer that asphalt roads.

      0

      1
  9. Thank you for reading my paper Oscar, and for your questions and comments. Plastic, like asphalt has a relatively low binomial expansion factor, when you compare it with materials like metals and gases. It can be used safely under normal conditions.

    If you read the paper, you would have seen that roads made with plastics actually last longer that asphalt roads.

    0

    0
  10. Now..
    I believe you are aware of what engineering factors of safety is. Rather let me remind you that factors of safety are those measures given by an engineer for unforseen contingencies in other to aviod them.
    Are there for saying that the plastic roads Don’t need it or it’s is perfect?

    0

    0
  11. To start with, I will directy address your very first question and say that there are no writing standards for abstracts that say that they must be evenly distributed between the margins.

    For technical reports, as much as being official writings that demonstrate the results of research, they are also bodies of work created by authors.

    And yes, standards do exist for the sake of homogenuity and continuity in writing, but they mostly serve as reference points. They do not exist as and are not supposed to be the only ways to do things. This is why referencing styles are commonly used with modifications.

    You are right to crique my in-text referencing though. I could have done better in creating links between the text and my sources as you said.

    That being said, you understand that technical reports exist to educate and inform. If the creator of a body of work feels that this process can be made better by going against the grain in some areas, then definitely some leeway is allowed.

    After all, what would become of science and the quest for knowledge without the willingness to see if other things can work better?

    To address your statement on what makes my paper unique, I remind you that, having read my paper, you should realize that plastic pollution is a problem that a large faction of the world simply ignores, and that potential applications for plastic waste have only recently begun to be taken seriously.

    To ask what ‘makes my paper unique’ would be to imply that the results of my research is information that is widely known to the public or at least to you. It could also imply that it is knowledge you gained through similar papers.

    You stated this “What am trying to say here is: when ever an engineer wants to solve a problem, he/she should ask, has someone elsewhere solved this particular problem?”.

    If that was what you meant, then you should have explained as above in your initial question.

    You’ve done very helpful analysis of my work, Harrison. Thank you.

    0

    0
    1. Thank you very much for your question, Ayomikun.
      The first important step would be to recognize this as a problem, and bring this problem to the consciousness of the society.
      When people understand that it is a problem, it becomes easier to do something about it as a society.

      After that, we would need to do a lot of research into how best we can implement this technology in Nigeria.
      It’s step by step but it would be worth it.

      0

      0
  12. Hi Gbemiga, great paper. plastics have been great in contributing to humanities giant technological leap. But we all know its pollution challenge worldwide. In Nigeria, we are not doing much to curtail plastic pollution. Decerning countries take innovative steps to make its citizens ambassadors for plastic recycling: some cities have made it possible to pay for bus transport using plastic bottles (Indonesia) while some actually pay an amount to those who recycle plastic contains. What are the Three solutions you will recommend to the Nigerian Government to effectively tackle plastic pollution?

    0

    0
    1. Thank you very much for your comments and questions

      I feel that completely tackling the problem of plastic pollution is one that would take far more than three steps as it has taken a long time and a long buildup to get to the point where plastic is practically inseperable from most parts of the society.

      We can’t simply ban plastic. That would be impossible. And it’s not an overnight fix, but a long, systematic one.

      However, as starting steps, I would first recommend that we stop using single use plastics. Things like nylon bags, or plastic toothpicks, or plastic spoons in takeaway packs that are used once and thrown away can be cut out of the cycle without causing instabilities.

      I would also recommend that the government create incentives to encourage recycling of plastic bottles by large companies ike Coca-Cola and Pepsi as these ones produce a significant fraction of the plastic bottles we use.

      In the United Kingdom, that law states that any water coming out of a tap must be safe to drink.
      If we could make it compulsory for water tanks to have filters and cleansing systems and make our pipe borne water safe to drink, we could eliminate the need for both bottled and sachet water. Sachet water is a type of plastic pollution that isn’t really widespread in other countries.

      A lot more is certainly needed, but these are some points I feel we as a society could start from.

      0

      0
    2. And interestingly enough, I recently read an article written by a man about the time he was homeless for a few months.

      He said that he managed to get money for food by collecting plastic bottles littered around and exchanging them for trash.

      It was very interesting

      0

      0
  13. How can you reconcile benefits of plastics with its danger? What should be done?

    and

    Use of plastics on roads will give us smooth plastic surfaces. What happens to frictional forces required between road surface and tyres for breaking purposes?

    0

    0
    1. The benefits are synonymous with the dangers.
      Plastic is extremely durable, which it why it takes centuries to decompose, which it a problem.
      The fact that they are cheap and easy to produce means that a lot of this durable material is being produced and left in the environment.

      About your second question, it’s important to note that manufacturing procedures for plastic roads differ as it it still a relatively new technology.

      That’s why more research is important, not just into plastic roads but into potential ways that we can apply all the durable plastic waste we are left with in beneficial ways

      0

      0
  14. Well done sir. The work is commendable. Ur report resembles a blog writeup. Section numbering is not proper. Are you presenting sections 2, 3 etc later? Ur referencing is improper. No particular style or method used ie Vancouver or Parenthetical referencing system or APA, MLA, Havard, IEEE, Numbering etc method. Reference materials not cited while cited ones are not listed in a technical report. Why?
    Dates ref. assessed not stated.
    Why have you not linked your work with smart city ie Lagos smart city with smart roads to reduce potholes, hardship on vehicular and non-vehicular road users, etc?
    Why have you not given the reader some engineering/technical processes from plastic wastes to plastic smart road?
    Why no tabular comparison of plastic road and asphalt road to ring out the advantages?
    Plastic road is in use in Ghana, where? Is it used anywhere in Nigeria yet? Any study on its use in Nigeria?

    1

    0
    1. Hello Tolu, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts.

      I understand your criticism about my inconsistent referencing style, I would change it right away if I could, I hope you’ll forgive me for any inconveniences I’ve caused you.

      A lot of my research materials were not
      technical papers, but news articles, as I have listed in my references. I made sure to attach links to all of them.

      Your question about why I failed to include engineering processes and comparisons in my article is one that a lot of people have asked me.

      In my article, I mentions two examples of companies currently carrying out research and implementation on plastic roads. The processes used by these two private companies are completely independent of each other and were developed separately.

      It would be different if I were explaining the manufacturing process behind things in the public domain that have a generally applied formula.

      And there are still many things that haven’t been taken into consideration, like how different climates might be better suited to different kinds of plastic roads.

      That’s why I stress that research is important, so we can determine the best way this would work for our society. There is still a lot to learned, and the intention of my paper was to be an eye opener rather than a direction manual.

      0

      0
  15. The benefits are synonymous with the dangers.
    Plastic is extremely durable, which it why it takes centuries to decompose, which it a problem.
    The fact that they are cheap and easy to produce means that a lot of this durable material is being produced and left in the environment.

    About your second question, it’s important to note that manufacturing procedures for plastic roads differ as it it still a relatively new technology.

    That’s why more research is important, not just into plastic roads but into potential ways that we can apply all the durable plastic waste we are left with in beneficial ways

    0

    0
  16. Pingback: viagra

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *