Home > Civil > NESTEC 2023 PAPER: Low-Income Renewable Energy-Based Microcontroller For Rural Northern Nigeria

NESTEC 2023 PAPER: Low-Income Renewable Energy-Based Microcontroller For Rural Northern Nigeria

ABSTRACT                        

This research study focuses on providing affordable renewable energy for rural communities without electricity in northern Nigeria using a microcontroller to control its operation. The pivotal control circuit is the Arduino UNO microcontroller, which is connected to the circuit through programming. The main task of the system is to give commands to the system with the help of the relay at its time of operation. The solar panel is connected to the grid for the community, using the inverter that converts the generated DC to AC. The main objective of my project is to provide electricity at an affordable rate through renewable energy, thereby bridging the gap of lack of electricity in northern Nigeria.  My project tends to provide an economic solution to the public and improve sustainability.

Keywords: Microcontroller, Renewable Energy, Arduino Uno Atmega328p, Electricity.

 

Author: Omede Stephen Peace

Supervising Lecturer: Engr. C. C Okoli

 

Click the Link Below For Full Paper, Questions and make your COMMENTS

LOW-INCOME RENEWABLE ENERGY-BASED MICROCONTROLLER FOR RURAL NORTHERN NIGERIA

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154 thoughts on “NESTEC 2023 PAPER: Low-Income Renewable Energy-Based Microcontroller For Rural Northern Nigeria

  1. The idea of a low-income renewable energy-based microcontroller for rural Northern Nigeria faces significant challenges, including cost, technological infrastructure, and long-term sustainability, which need careful consideration before implementation can be deemed feasible. Do you think it’d be more practical and cost efficient for off grid operations in Northern Nigeria?

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    1. Thank you sir, for going through my paper and your eyes for details.

      Addressing the challenges of executing a low-income renewable energy-based microcontroller in rural Northern Nigeria can be complex like you stated earlier.
      And it can be more practical and cost-efficient for off-grid operations if specific solutions are projected to the rural areas. This could involve partnerships with the local communities, government officials, a focus on maintenance practices and more implementation of renewable energy.
      Nonetheless, a sustainable solution would require a more in depth study on my paper, other related areas and collaboration with independent parties which can result into a perfect solution for the execution of my paperwork.

      Thank you!

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      1. This is wonderful,
        Is there any support from govt?
        Because i know this project will require a lot of resources to implement it

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    2. This is a nice idea.
      What are the difficulties you may face during this project?

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      1. Hi Sherifat.

        Yes, I encountered several difficulties, such as running tests on the system. One major issue was with the code programmed for the Arduino, as numerous bugs were discovered on the first attempt, preventing the relay from functioning properly.

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  2. Nice Paper, I pretty much have questions but I will come ask later.

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    1. Almost ma/sir, thank you for the compliment.

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  3. Nice paper.
    From the mode of operation, could you please explain the role of and specifications of the inverter used to convert DC to AC?

    I need to be clear on that.

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    1. The solar panels generate electricity in a form called DC, which is like a one-way flow of electricity. But our homes use AC, where the electricity flows back and forth. The inverter changes the DC electricity from the solar panels into the AC electricity that the community needs.

      In this project, the inverter is placed alongside the monocrystalline solar panel. So the monocrystalline is just a type of solar panel, and having the inverter nearby helps in converting the energy efficiently.

      The inverter plays a vital role in distributing and transmitting electricity within the Dangoma community.

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  4. Your research paper is good, a lot were touched there.

    From your paper, can you explore how the system can be monitored for faults, and what steps are taken to address them?

    Nice paper work.

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    1. Absolutely.
      Walk with me for a while. This is a project that uses a combination of:

      Precise timekeeping: The Arduino UNO atmega328p acts as the brain of the system, having an internal clock for accurate timekeeping.

      Conditional programming: The microcontroller in the project is programmed with specific instructions that define the schedule for power activation and deactivation.

      Continuous monitoring: This ensures that faults are promptly identified and addressed.

      The implementation of error-handling means adds an extra layer of resilience, allowing the system to recover smoothly in case of unexpected situations.

      The use of multiple checks and balances ensures a reliable and uninterrupted power supply in the Dangoma community.

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  5. Your research paper is unique and introduced a technology advanced means, which is good considering where the world is heading.

    Solar energy is a nice approach but why did you choose only that means of giving power to the community?

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    1. The decision to make use of solar was a feasible one, considering that the north has higher sun intensity, which aligns with the community’s specific needs, and takes advantage of the capabilities of the chosen microcontroller technology.

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  6. I must commend this article it’s really unique.
    But please I need clarification.

    Are there any other renewable energy sources being considered for the community alongside hydropower and solar energy?

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    1. Thank you, ma.

      For the purpose of this project, no other sources of renewable energy except solar energy were considered.

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  7. Your paper work is really comprehensive and addresses one of the vital challenges we’re facing in Nigeria(electricity).

    Keep it up and fail to expand this idea.

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    1. Thank you so much, Muna.

      Don’t hesitate to ask questions on this paper if any come up in the future.

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  8. Your paper work is really comprehensive and addresses one of the vital challenges we’re facing in Nigeria(electricity).

    Keep it up and fail to expand this idea.

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    1. Thank you so much, Muna.

      Don’t hesitate to ask questions on this paper if any come up in the future.

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  9. Hello Omede. I’ve gone through your paper and I must say, you did a good job, kudos 👍.

    You used microcontroller, why? Can’t another software be used for this project?

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    1. Thank you so much.

      The microcontroller, specifically the Arduino UNO with an ATmega328P, serves as the brain of the system by automating the process of powering the solar system at specific times. Programmed to execute instructions, it enables precise control without human intervention.

      Another reason for choosing a microcontroller for this project is its reliability and stability in executing programmed instructions. It is also adept at maintaining accurate timekeeping, ensuring that the system operates according to the designated schedule.

      Furthermore, in terms of error handling, the microcontroller ensures the system can recover from errors.

      Not to be overlooked, the Arduino UNO ATmega328P microcontroller, at the time when this project was being worked on, was the most cost-effective option available in the market, reducing the financial demands of the project.

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  10. Hi Peace!

    Why didn’t you choose another renewable energy to work with, why renewable energy?

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    1. Well, for the objective of this project, solar was considered as it has a lot of benefit considering the targeted location.

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  11. Hey Peace,

    How did you determine that 6pm and 6am were the ideal times to turn the system on and off?

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    1. Well, the major reason why 6 am to 6 pm was selected as the ideal time is to save energy. At 6 am, when the electricity goes off, there’s enough natural light to carry everyone through. At 6 pm, when it comes on, is when the energy stored throughout the day can be dissipated and used by the villagers. Like I said earlier, it was programmed that way to save energy and get the batteries charged.

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  12. What challenges did you face during the implementation of this project, and how were they overcome?

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    1. A lot of challenges were faced; some days, I just had to pause and go back to the drawing board to understand why I started this project in the first place!
      Well, from the beginning, one of the challenges was putting the ideas together to make a full operation.
      Some days, my supervisor and I sat and asked a lot of questions, such as, Should this project be targeted to the north? What are the financial costs? and so on. Why should we use only solar energy and not other sources of renewable energy?
      A lot of questions were asked, and some decisions were opted out as well. I must say that was one of the most challenging moments. Also, the codes were giving us a tough time; I had to learn programming from a friend to understand the code fully. Well, this is a breakdown of the challenges faced, but all in all, we achieved a positive result, and it was satisfying.

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  13. How do you envision the long-term sustainability of this project, particularly in terms of maintenance and community support?

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    1. The explanation will be brief, I promise!

      The use of an Arduino UNO with an atmega328p microcontroller allows for automated control of the solar panel system; this automation minimizes the risk of error or disruptions in the energy supply.
      Thereby reducing the rate of fault happening to the system at any slight instance. As for the solar panel design, calculations are carefully carried out in equation 2.2.1 to determine the optimal number of panels designated for 625 houses. This is done to avoid overloading, which can cause harm to the system, thereby reducing its life span.

      Battery maintenance and security are among the most crucial aspects to consider, and these have been carefully integrated into the system. Cages are implemented to safeguard the batteries from potential theft and mishandling. The emphasis is placed on regular maintenance to ensure the proper functioning of the batteries, preventing unexpected shutdowns.

      The inverter, positioned alongside the monocrystalline solar panel, efficiently converts DC to AC power for distribution within the community. This process is essential for transmitting electricity and forming the backbone of a reliable power supply.

      The distribution panel acts as a central hub, dividing electricity among houses. Continuous monitoring by the microcontroller ensures that power transmission occurs as scheduled, thereby enhancing the overall reliability of the system and collectively contributing to the long-term sustainability of the solar panel project by providing a consistent and reliable renewable energy supply to the community.

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  14. Peace, what’s the long term plans to enhance this project?

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    1. “Well, maintenance has to be one of them; maintaining the project in the community will help increase the lifespan and promptly resolve any issues that come up. Financial investment is also a good perspective.
      This project, if invested in, will address many electricity issues we have in the country, especially in communities, not just in the north.

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  15. How does the conditional statement in the program dictate the system’s response based on the current time of operations?

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    1. The conditional statement is like a programmed code that functions based on instructions, similar to how instructions are meant to be followed without disobedience unless there is an issue.

      That’s how the conditional system operates, following the instructions set for when to turn on and when to turn off.

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  16. Your paper is comprehensive but can you throw more light on how the codes works?

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    1. The code works based on the instructions it was given to follow, these instructions include commands to activate the system.

      Once activated, the code oversees the system’s operation, monitoring various parameters or triggers to determine when the system should be turned off. Ultimately, the code’s primary function is to manage the system’s power state in accordance with the instructions it has been programmed to follow.

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  17. Hey Peace, can you elaborate on how the intensity of light from the solar? Like how does the solar collects more light from the sun to distribute electricity?

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    1. It works according to the generation of solar energy from sunlight.

      Let me quickly break it down: Solar energy is converted into electrical energy through photovoltaic (PV) panels. This energy can be used to generate electricity or stored in batteries.

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  18. What triggers the relay within the distribution panel? Because from what I read in your research paper, it’s obvious the relay plays a significant role.

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  19. Omede, quick one yeah? From the deactivation aspect, how does the system store energy when it’s deactivated, and how is this stored eergy utilized later?

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    1. Alright, thank you.

      The deactivation doesn’t really affect the battery’s ability to store energy. It’s simply deactivated to ensure that electricity isn’t distributed to households at that moment, as it isn’t the programmed time for it.

      The stored energy is used at the programmed time, providing electricity to the surrounding area.

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  20. Just a quick question, can you explain how the system knows the time to generate electricity and the time to distribute electricity to the community?

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  21. From the activation and deactivation aspect, how does the system ensure that the stored energy remains intact and ready for distribution when needed?

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    1. During the activation, the Arduino UNO microcontroller uses its internal clock to follow programmed instructions, including scheduled power activation and deactivation. which evaluates the current time and activates the power supply when it’s the programmed time.

      As for the deactivation aspect, the system stores energy when it is off. As earlier mentioned, the solar panels convert sunlight into electricity, which is then stored in batteries after being converted to a usable form. The stored electricity is held until it’s needed, ensuring it’s available when required.

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  22. Just incase, are they safety measures or failures in place to handle unexpected situations during the energy storage and distribution process?

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  23. Just incase, how does the system handles discharging when the battery is fully filled?

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  24. What backup plans do you have just incase the system all of a sudden stops generating the AC?

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    1. This is thoughtful.

      Well, the energy stored will be utilized to maintain electricity while working on the solar system.

      Additionally, we will take measures as the other power source mentioned in the paper to ensure uninterrupted electricity supply during emergencies

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  25. This is a good project considering how the rate of blackout in the north is increasing daily, but why not implement the current source we’re using, why solar?

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    1. Thank you so much.
      The current source we’re using seems not to be effective and has a lot set backs in environmental friendly perspective.

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  26. Solar panel plays a significant role in generating the DC, why didnt you use it directly for AC? since it’s for community use not personal use.

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  27. Your paper work is a very good approach to solve the current issue the north is experiencing in electricity, if given the opportunity to implement this project, how will source funding for it?

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  28. Why didn’t you consider business areas? Especially Lagos that has a lot of areas or communties that don’t have access to constant electricity, like why north?

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    1. Well, it’s a gradual process, but the key location right now is the North because the need for electricity seems to be increasing more there than in any other location.

      Besides, the North receives more sunlight, which can accommodate this project for a long time and generate additional funds or access to other locations, such as Lagos.

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  29. What happens when it’s in deactivation mode? Will the battery be doing anything apart from storing electricity?

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    1. A lot of persons have written on electricity but yours is directed towards the North, that’s unique.

      What means will you instigate to generate income in maintaining this project in the community?

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      1. One of many means to generate income for maintaining the project in the community is by collecting a small payment from each household.

        This generated income will be allocated towards the maintenance of the project, ensuring its continuous use.

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    2. When the system is in deactivation mode, it stores the current that will be distributed when the programmed time for operation is reached.

      So, the battery does not distribute energy because it’s not the programmed time for electricity generation.

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  30. Please what is the factor that makes this cheaper than all other sources… More so how much do the component cost?

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    1. The affordability of maintaining the solar project compared to hydroelectricity bills is a key factor that makes solar energy cheaper.

      Not only is the cost lower, but solar energy also offers numerous advantages over hydroelectricity, making it a more advantageous and cost-effective option.

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  31. Really enjoyed reading your research work, nice idea you got there

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    1. Thank you so much.

      Don’t hesitate to ask questions if any come up about this paper.

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  32. The paper work is nice,
    But, what should be considered before the implementation of this project?
    What are we sacrificing?
    Is there any risk?

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    1. A lot needs to be considered before the implementation of the project:

      Finances: Money needs to be put in place to achieve this project. Literally, everything requires money. Collaboration with sponsors is crucial.

      Logistics: Transporting the solar panels, batteries and appliances to the Dangoma community is essential.

      Creating awareness: Creating awareness in the community is very important. Many people might not understand what this project stands for and how it is represented. Awareness needs to be created in the community, which might lead to many individuals volunteering to work with us on the project.

      Of course, risks are involved. Insecurity, which is one of the challenges we’re facing in Nigeria currently, poses a threat. Insecurity may be a concern while working on the project and while transporting the appliances. That’s the primary risk this project tends to face.

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  33. This is very beautiful Peace.
    Welldone.

    The question I have got is this: why is it that it will only before the rural areas part of Northern Nigeria?
    Any reason for choosing the location for case study?
    Thank You

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    1. Thank you so much.

      When we were deliberating on the project, we had several places to consider, especially the South, where lots of businesses were carried out, and the financial return would have been higher. However, one of our goals was to provide sustainable electricity in a place that lacks electricity, and the North fits this description. The north also has enough sunlight, sunlight that, when used to power solar panels, will go a long way in providing long-lasting electricity. Research done during the project also showed how those living in the north complained bitterly about the frequent power outages they experienced.

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  34. The idea of a low-income renewable energy-based microcontroller for rural Northern Nigeria faces significant challenges(someone has said that), including cost, technological infrastructure, and long-term sustainability, which need careful consideration before implementation can be deemed feasible. My question is, don’t you think microcontrollers have limitations to what they can do including high energy transmission because before you talk of low-income based renewable energy in a particular area, you should have at least made a survey on the amount of energy consumed in that area, then ascertain if the microcontrollers can supply greater or equal energy to sustain that area. So, in other words, how do you intend to manage steady supply of energy to that area using the microcontrollers. I don’t know if this question actually make sense to you.
    Meanwhile, the paper is a good one, weldone

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  35. Also what are the the risk Factors associated with the implementation of this project because they’re always risk factors associated with every project. I forgot to add. Thank you

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  36. It’s a well written paper, good work . But don’t you think microcontrollers have limitations to what they can do and how do you plan to deal with that?

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    1. However, microcontrollers do have limitations, but in this project, they can be managed in various ways:
      Firstly, microcontrollers are used to execute instructions and control hardware components in this solar energy system, enabling them to monitor operations remotely.

      Also, the microcontrollers in this project incorporate voltage regulation and monitoring features to safeguard sensitive components from voltage changes.

      Not to forget, microcontrollers provide fault detection and protection techniques to safeguard the power supply system from potential failures, enhancing reliability in various applications.

      So, like I said earlier, they do have limitations, but they are effectively managed and overcome through specific functionalities targeted to the requirements of the solar energy system.

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  37. Wow, this is a really impressive and innovative project! Using renewable energy to provide electricity for rural communities in Nigeria is a great way to improve their quality of life. The use of the Arduino microcontroller is a clever way to automate the system and make it more efficient. And the overall goal of providing affordable and sustainable energy is admirable. It’s clear that you put a lot of thought and effort into this project.

    Given the success of your project, have you considered expanding it to other parts of Nigeria or even other countries? Or do you have plans for future iterations or improvements to the current system?

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    1. Thank you so much. The goal is to ensure that rural areas, especially in the northern regions, have access to electricity.

      Yes, I have. Of course, success doesn’t happen overnight. It takes training and a lot of processes. Implementing this project step-by-step, as time goes on, other parts of the country will also benefit.

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  38. Wow, this project is really impressive and innovative project. Using renewable energy to provide electricity for rural communities in Nigeria is a great way to improve their quality of life. The use of the Arduino microcontroller is a clever way to automate the system and make it more efficient. And the overall goal of providing affordable and sustainable energy is admirable. It’s clear that you put a lot of thought and effort into this project.

    have you considered expanding it to other parts of Nigeria or even other countries? Or do you have plans for future iterations or improvements to the current system?

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  39. How does thike system works and is it only for northern Nigeria?

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    1. Alright, let me quickly give a rundown of how the system works:

      The system operates based on using an Arduino UNO to control the solar panel setup. The Arduino UNO is programmed to automatically turn on the solar electricity system at 6 p.m. and turn it off at 6 a.m. without requiring manual intervention.

      During the daytime, the community uses hydropower, and the solar electricity system automatically activates at night.
      An inverter converts DC to AC for consumption, and it is strategically placed alongside the monocrystalline solar panel.
      The distribution panel, resembling a distribution board, ensures electricity reaches every house in the community.
      The Arduino UNO is connected to the distribution panel, sending instructions on when to power on or off automatically.

      This project is for the north for now, but as time goes on with enough funds, it will expand to other locations.

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  40. It’s a nice project, however I’ll comment on few things. Firstly, Arduino MCU is substandard when you talk about industrial Applications and automations, however it best first in prototyping.
    Secondly, in real time monitoring and comparison as projected in the project methodology, the Arduino UNO does not have built in Time/Clock so you would rather get additional RTC for the real time monitoring system.

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  41. Great work Peace!

    > Each home uses 60kwh per 1 month = 625000kwh per month.

    Power consumption varies. Perhaps providing a case-study household with the typical electrical devices would be beneficial.

    Additionally, expanding *Equation 2.2.1* to include and approximate cost (merely an approximate using the current market costs), would better highlight the practicability of this study.

    All the same, a truly well-researched and thought-out paper.

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    1. Kudos to the initiator
      This is a great innovation

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      1. Thank you so much.
        Don’t hesitate to ask any question on the paper incase any comes up.

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  42. The research work is good but I have a question,
    Is there any provision for educating the masses on how to adapt to the new changes been made according to the research work.

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    1. Yes, there is.

      Given that, it isn’t a problem as days or weeks of training will be allocated to every household.

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    1. Thank you so much, and don’t hesitate to ask questions on the paper if any come up.

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  43. Your research work is interesting.

    I would love to witness how these work.

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  44. How can renewable energy sources like solar or wind potentially be integrated into a microcontroller system to provide sustainable power in regions with limited existing infrastructure?

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    1. Microcontrollers, such as the Arduino UNO with an ATmega328P, enable the integration of renewable energy sources like solar or wind into sustainable power systems through control, monitoring, upgrade, and protection functionalities.

      They also perform a lot but mostly detect faults to ensure reliable and effective energy generation and distribution.

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  45. A very amazing work, I must say.

    But I have a question.

    You mentioned Circuit Breaker as one of the hardware components. What’s its use?

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    1. Thank you so much.

      A circuit breaker interrupts the flow of electricity to prevent damage to the system or hazards, such as electrical fires, in cases where there is an excessive flow of current in the system.

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  46. It’s a good work, Peace. I have a question: why did you choose solar? Why not wind, or a hybrid source?

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    1. Thank you so much, Marvellous..

      Well, then the north tends to have higher sunlight, and the only renewable energy that one can use to benefit from it is Solar energy

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  47. Nice paper work. After reading through your paper my question is, In a situation where the environment in which this project is exhibited at a particular session is cloudy thereby serving as factors to hinder the effective charging of the solar system can’t there be a way that the hydropower generated during the day as mentioned work as a secondary method to charge up the solar power system at this condition.

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    1. Thank you so much.

      Yes, sir, in situations where the environment is cloudy and hindering the effective charging of the solar system, utilizing hydropower generated during the day as a secondary method to charge up the solar power system is possible.

      However, it is important to note that relying on hydropower as an alternative charging method on multiple occasions may harm the batteries, especially by reducing their storage ability over time.

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    1. Thank you so much. Don’t hesitate to ask questions if any come up.

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  48. Is there there any provision or arrangements you made for maintenance and servicing?
    Is there any form of device tracking or security installed in it in case of if gets stolen by vandals?

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    1. Yes, regarding maintenance and servicing, we have established a specific timeframe for it.
      To prevent logistic issues, we have assigned people to be available in the surrounding areas to respond rapidly to any emergencies.

      Additionally, while tracking equipment will be installed in the future, for now, we have implemented security measures such as protective bars wrapped around the equipment.

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  49. This is laudable, I must admit. The project indeed adopted a SDG measure, and it’s a source of energy worth adopting, considering the levels of adverse impacts of other sources of energy such as the fossil fuels, among others.

    The plans, arrangements, and implementation is commendable. Kudos.

    Kindly attend to these questions, please:

    1. When you said “in terms of preventing imbalances, the distribution panel employs advanced monitoring and control mechanisms, where the mechanisms monitor energy consumption patterns in real life, allowing the system to adjust and allocate electricity based on the varying demands of households”, what are the check mechanisms in place to ensure that there’s even and equal consumption across homes?

    2. There’s room for connection to the internet, hence, what security measure is provided to keep at bay intruders and others with malicious intents? More so, knowing how much challenging IoT poses in terms of security, how often do you intend to upgrade the programs?

    3. Lastly, Are the materials for this project locally sourced and/or assembled or imported?

    Overall, this is a good project, if the right and appropriate players are brought on board to maximize our vast available solar energy. Well done and all the best.

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  50. This is very insightful…I am glad you are working towards sustainable energy and tackling challenges using sustainable energy… But by bit we shall get there.

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    1. Thank you so much.

      Indeed, electricity is one of the urgent needs we have right now, and it would be preferable if the source aligns with nature.

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  51. I love the topic you selected because the use of renewable energy is something that would definitely benefit everyone in Nigeria.

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  52. This is an amazing innovation Peace, just to ask, what are the key technological features that has been incorporated into the microcontroller to make it affordable and accessible for low-income populations in the specified region?

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  53. This is really a nice research work needed at a time like this. Truly, the northern part of Nigeria really need to take advantage of the
    heat from the sun and the much wind they are enriched with to better their economy and to eradicate poverty. How do you intend to do this and how to attract the government into embarking on this?

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    1. Thank you for your question.

      We plan to utilize this platform to seek funds, and I believe over time, more attention from agencies will be drawn to the project. This will help in securing funds for the actualization of this project.

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  54. This is a very innovative piece we have here looking at one of the most disturbing challenges of Nigeria which is power failure and from what u wrote the timing for activation 6pm and deactivation 6am why limiting the time to these time intervals

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    1. This is a very nice paper. But do we really need to make it microcontroller based? . That is, there are other ways such as using an inverter board which is more efficient

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      1. We don’t really need a microcontroller-based solution for this project. However, considering the specific targets and purposes of this project, a microcontroller-based approach is necessary for optimal functionality.

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    2. Thank you.

      The timing for activation at 6 pm and deactivation at 6 am is set to align with peak power demand hours in Nigeria, particularly the community, typically in the evening and early morning. During these high-demand periods when the solar isnt generating energy, we rely on the electricity stored in the battery to meet the community’s energy needs.

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  55. For the renewable energy, inverters are expensive,how do you people intend to fund this project?
    Also,If this project is successfully executed,what are the maintenance practice needed to ensure this project dosent become a failure?

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  56. To power the microcontroller you have to take some of the power from the solar system. Is this energy consumption insignificant to what is generated and how much do think will be consumed to automate it.

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    1. Thank you so much for reading the paper.

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  57. Dear peace, what strategy have you employed to enable the smooth running of this project?

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    1. Wow!
      This is so innovative, cannot wait to see how it turns out, it would be of great help to a lotttt of people.
      Welldone, Peace.👏🏾

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      1. Thank you so much.

        Don’t hesitate to ask questions if any come up on this project.

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    2. To ensure the smooth operation of this project, we have several key strategies on the ground. Firstly, it is to establish a strong foundation for the project, laying the groundwork for its success. Additionally, we secure funding from both government and non-governmental bodies to sustain our operations. These measures, among others, will be instrumental in facilitating the seamless execution of the project.

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  58. Could you provide more details about the calculations mentioned in Table 1 for determining the number of solar panels required in a community of 400 to 500 people, and how the assembled solar panel array near the village contributes to the security of the system?

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    1. Well, various components can fail at any time, which is why we have standby solutions ready to address any problems.

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  59. Wow, this is interesting. Great work.
    I hope you have plans to sensitize the people on usage of appliances especially at night.

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  60. What exactly is the micro controller

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    1. The micro controller is the Arduino Uno atmega 328p,it determines virtually the whole operation of the system.

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  61. From your paper work, the number of consumers are 400-500 people, what if this project gets the attention of wider audiences, how do you meet there needs?

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    1. Meeting the needs of a wider audience is basically the same as done in this work. Carrying out a load profile analysis and solar resource availability of the region to determine the best design suitable for meeting the load demand of the region.

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    1. A solar panel system, is also called a photovoltaic (PV) system, it is a setup that converts sunlight into usable electricity making use of different components like the solar panels, inverters and the mounting system working together.

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  62. Quite interesting, but my question is how are you going to sustain this source of energy for a long period of time? I mean this is Nigeria where things always go wrong 🤷

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  63. I have gone through your work, great!!. it is worth it. I also have to add, when installing such in the rural areas, procedures for maintainance and replacements should be included and strictly followed for effective durability.

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  64. I can say you nailed it, we hope to see this project being used in the society.

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  65. Wow, this is intriguing!
    Your work poses more of Economic implications than the Academics sponsoring it, especially, giving cognizance to geographical context and relevance. The North with it abundant sunlight has the potential to fly your idea, and as well, set another platform to engage once again the conversation of decentralising the national grid system to allow competition and local communities cater for their power needs. This would help break the scepter of monopoly that has hitherto dictated over the sector and has kept it in this sorry state.
    Ma’am bravo!

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    1. Thank you so much.

      Honestly, at this point, the north needs to benefit from its natural resources to solve one of the most challenging issues in the community, which is the lack of electricity.

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  66. Nice work Peace…
    Your target market is quite unique, why north? You could possibly have made a lot of money by doing this in the south because businesses are more active there, why choose north?

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  67. Nice work here
    But this question is also on my mind ,
    Your target market is quite unique, why north? You could possibly have made a lot of money by doing this in the south because businesses are more active there, why choose north?

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  68. Great job, Peace! Your target market is intriguing; why focus on the north? You might have had greater financial success in the south, given its more active business environment. What influenced your choice of the northern market?

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  69. Good morning peace. After considering your paper I think it’s expedient you provide answers to the following questions.

    1. How did you determine the specific energy needs of the rural communities in northern Nigeria, and how does your microcontroller-based system cater to those requirements?

    2. Can you elaborate on the economic feasibility of your project? What factors contribute to making this renewable energy solution affordable for the low-income communities in the region?

    3. In terms of scalability and long-term sustainability, how do you envision the maintenance and potential expansion of these renewable energy systems in various rural areas within northern Nigeria?

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  70. What a wonderful and innovative piece!

    My question is, do you have plans in place to upscale the project and extend it’s use in other regions in Nigeria?

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  71. What are some key applications of microcontrollers, and how do they contribute to power supply regulation and energy efficiency in electrical devices?

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  72. How does the Arduino IDE facilitate the writing and organization of code for microcontrollers?

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  73. Does the code needs to renewed or it operate in the programmed code for as long as the system stands in the community?

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  74. I must confess the fact that, this is very justified and very commendable, more wisdom for higher project.
    Haven gone through these dynamic transformation in technological advancement around the globe, with a high sense of responsibility and great vision in repositioning electricity in Northern part of the nation.
    What are the modalities or strategies you engaged(put in place) to maintain this project after actualization?

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  75. What is the work of H-bridge Inverter as one of the hardware components.

    2. Is solar energy and A Microcontroller works hand in hand?

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  76. The H-bridge inverter is a power electronic device responsible for converting the DC from the solar panels to usable AC power, which is what we consume in our homes.
    Solar energy which is the source of the solar panels works hand in hand with the micro controllers, the micro controllers determines when to connect the electricity generated from the solar panels to the load.

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