Home > Civil > NESTEC 2023 PAPER: Drones And Autonomous Cars: Addressing Nigeria’s Insecurity Issues

NESTEC 2023 PAPER: Drones And Autonomous Cars: Addressing Nigeria’s Insecurity Issues

In Nigeria, a nation with a population exceeding two hundred million, the lack of robust security measures can lead to perilous situations. Here, the focus is on the utilization of drones and autonomous cars as innovative tools for both aerial and terrestrial surveillance. While critically examining existing literature, this paper provides insightful feedback and presents new recommendations. It then delves into design research to visually represent the proposed solutions. The projection suggests that with the adoption of these technologies, Nigeria could experience a significant reduction in insecurity challenges, potentially by 75% by 2033. In conclusion, deploying these advanced surveillance methods is a critical step towards fostering a safer environment for Nigeria.

Keywords: Aerial Surveillance, Autonomous Vehicle, Drone, Insecurity, Platooning.

Author: Njoku, Onyekachi Sylvester

Supervisor: Dr. Chidera Linda Anioke

 

Click the Link Below For Full Paper, Questions and make your COMMENTS

Drones And Autonomous Cars- Addressing Nigeria’s Insecurity Issues

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165 thoughts on “NESTEC 2023 PAPER: Drones And Autonomous Cars: Addressing Nigeria’s Insecurity Issues

  1. What is the estimated cost for Nigeria to implement a widespread drone and autonomous car system for security.

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    1. Nigeria’s insecurity issues is widespread. While we could see the budget of this project running into billions of naira based not only on technology deployment, but also on logistics, a secure country is a prosperous country.

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  2. Are autonomous cars secure against potential hacking or maliciously attacks?

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    1. While embarking on this research, I thought deeply about this. Now, I expect that POL_DRONE_1.01 performs only reconnaissance functions and to this effect can send of radio signals signalling security operatives of its current location, hence victim location and POL_CAR_1.01 to perform immediate de-escalation of situations or neutralization of threats through refined machine learning. This reduces the chance of hacking. However, there could be problems like signal jamming and data loss during transmission which can be mitigated using access control methods like CSMA, CSMA/CD, etc

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      1. How do Nigerian citizens feel about increased surveillance through drones?

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  3. How effective are drones in monitoring vast and challenging terrains in Nigeria

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    1. If you take a good look at the drone flight path figure,you’d notice that the drone is programmed to trace a path such that it covers significantly predicted areas of attack. It is basically impossible for search operations to be carried out in every nook and cranny of the country, therefore, I suggested the use of machine learning algorithms that can to a success rate of 70% at least predict attack zones

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  4. Hi Onyeke, how are these autonomous cars and drones maintained over time?

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    1. Hello Paul. I highlighted some technical nuances both the drone and autonomous cars could face which could include their lifespan. The major problem with the drones will be their battery longevity which can be fixed by replacement. Drone parts can also be easily replaced. However, a drone can serve the country for at least 5 years. Autonomous cars are like any other car, the only distinguishing feature is their ability to be self driving. This means their maintenance is like that of any other car

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  5. Are there any other countries with similar security issues that have effectively used drones and autonomous cars?

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    1. Drones, fairly, for SAR operations and not in actual patrolling. Autonomous cars, not quite. Autonomous cars have been used for logistics in war zones to reduce number of human soldiers on the field

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  6. Beyond security, in what other sectors can Nigeria leverage drone and autonomous car technologies for growth and development

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    1. While this paper focuses chiefly on their direct application as tools for security, drones have proven themselves operable in logistics. Also, autonomous cars like Elon Musk’s Tesla have been used for transportation.

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  7. Are there international grants or partnerships available to aid Nigeria in funding this project?

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    1. We will discuss this when the Nigerian government or any interested private company decides to adopt this idea😀

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  8. How can drone technology be adapted to specific security challenges in Nigeria?

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    1. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on how this can be achieved
      Drones blended with AI. It’s the future😀

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      1. Are there models from other countries that Nigeria can adapt or learn from in deploying these technologies for security?

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  9. What are the infrastructure challenges in Nigeria for the smooth operation of autonomous vehicles?

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    1. Top on my mind writing this paper was “Does Nigeria have the roads for this?” That is why this paper is a blend of drones and autonomous vehicles. In bad road areas, drones will be deployed.

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  10. What kind of training is required for security personnel to operate and manage these drones effectively?

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    1. It’s a good thing these drones are fitted with machine learning algorithms for their operations, right?
      Required training is in monitoring of surveillance for confirmation of anomalies and also, rescue of drones and autonomous cars in case of failure.
      Little training us therefore required.

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  11. How is Nigeria planning to balance technological advancements with citizens’ rights?

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    1. Before this project is deployed, our senators have the responsibility of making laws that protect the privacy of our citizens. However, it is worthy to note that since this technology is ran on machine learning algorithms whose data stem from citizen provided data, the citizens who provide these data must have consented to giving information.

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      1. Are there cultural or social concerns related to these technologies that need to be addressed?

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  12. How might Nigeria’s neighbours react to widespread drone surveillance, especially near border areas?

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    1. Studies have shown that the porousness of Nigeria’s borders has lead to the influx of aliens into the country who are unaccounted for and can therefore perform various crimes and head back to their countries. Therefore, I recommend drones on our borders within our country

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  13. What specific kind of drone technologies are most suited for Nigeria’s security landscape?

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    1. Other than blades for flight, batteries for energy, cameras for vision and the body as a house, only new technology is without-remote control of the drones using AI

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  14. How will law enforcement integrate autonomous car data into their existing security protocols?

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    1. It is very important that the success of the autonomous car is properly documented and recorded. Therefore storing their data in separate folders consisting successes, type of attack, failures even must be done.

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  15. What kind of training is required for security personnel to operate and manage these drones effectively?

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    1. Little too no training. If anything the technology should be void of human interference

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  16. How can Nigeria benefit from global advancements in drone and autonomous car technologies?

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    1. By training it’s youth; you and me to spearhead operations in machine learning and AI in the future

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  17. Can autonomous cars be equipped with security features that alert law enforcement of suspicious activities?

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    1. Yes. However, in this design, before any alert is sent to security agencies, the autonomous cars are required to have deescalated situations or neutralized threats

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  18. Will there be proper training for security personnel?

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    1. Well, maybe for maintenance purposes. However, since drones are already used for logistics and aerial video coverage of events, maintenance wouldn’t be difficult.

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  19. Are there regional collaborations or treaties that Nigeria should consider regarding the use of such technologies?

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    1. Region with it’s neighbours is splendid idea. I think that decisive action must be taken in ensuring that Nigeria’s borders are secure too

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  20. How feasible is it for Nigeria to implement a wide spread network of surveillance drone given it technological infrastructure?

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    1. It’s impossible to have this technologies in every nook and cranny of the country. However, strategic placement decided by machine learning algorithms based on citizen provided data, will ensure accurate placements.

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  21. What regulatory framework is in place, or should be in place, for the operation of drones and autonomous cars in Nigeria?

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    1. NASRDA must be a relevant stakeholder in this project. Our senators and federal house legislators must also make laws that will see the smooth operation of these technologies

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  22. Given Nigeria’s diverse climate conditions, how adaptable are drones and autonomous cars to the environment?

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    1. You’ve just given me an idea for research. How drones can manage diverse weather conditions😅

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  23. How will data from drones be stored, and who will have access to it?

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    1. In Fig. 4 of the paper, it’s stipulated clearly that there will be some sort of mesh topology consisting a intermediary substation called satellite mainly to boost quality of images or videos and finally the receiving security outfit station. This is where the information is stored for security outfit use. Citizens who have concrete reason for access probably legal cases as stipulated by law and security agencies will have access to it.

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  24. What is the expected lifespan of these drones and autonomous cars?

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    1. I do not have adjusted figures on how long they should but typically drones can last an average of 5 years and autonomous cars 8-10 years.

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  25. What is the fidelity of the machine learning algorithms deployed on this technology??

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    1. I project them to be 70% efficient and provide an overall 75% reduction in violent crimes. This is a proposal.

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  26. Can this technology be implemented in Nigeria as a whole?

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    1. There’s widespread insecurity in the country. However, we must treat parts of the country with highest rates of violent crime with prime importance.

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  27. How can this be helpful in our country considering the environment and behavior of the citizens

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    1. Thank you, Anita. Because these drones are only going to be deployed in areas that are not motorable, it suggests that there will be little human activity in such areas. Therefore, I thought of violent crime perpetrators as the only threat to the drones and also thought that the drones will be equipped with high def cameras such that the drones could be at unreachable heights while performing their operations. On the hand of the autonomous cars, they must be equipped with special equipments to neutralize threats or deescalate situations. However, I’ve just gotten a recommendation from Collins; the reduction of noise and light to avoid attraction to themselves.

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  28. Love the idea your paper proposes for the insecurity issues in Nigeria.
    Did you consider reducing the visibility of these devices for effective surveillance through, the reduction of their emitted noises and light to the barest minimum?

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    1. That’s a brilliant idea, Collins. I didn’t think about that. I strongly recommend you to research on it and probably get it published here for adoption so we can make this country a safer place to live in.

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  29. How can Nigeria benefit from global advancements in drone and autonomous car technologies?

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    1. This project is one way. I’ve also seen a study that uses RFID cameras on drones for agricultural inspection. That’s a huge one if you ask me 😉

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  30. Do you think there could be discomfort on Nigeria’s neighbours like Niger?

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    1. This paper doesn’t intend for the technologies to encroach into their territory

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  31. Hello Kachi!
    I think your paper proposes a really efficient way of curbing insecurity in Nigeria.
    Were there any considerations to monitoring the data streams from the drones to prevent interception and manipulation of the data before they get to the third-party security agencies?

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    1. Hello, Nnamdi. While I admit to not researching on that area, I’d suggest CSMA or CSMA/CD since the drone would be using radio waves which is a wireless transmission medium for it’s propagation. For the autonomous car, there is a very high chance of cyber attacks. However, abundant ways to mitigate this threat abound like in any other cyber app. Examples include use of firewalls, Multi-Factor Authentication, Data encryption, Anti Malware softwares, Regular software updates to mention a few

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  32. What specific types of drones are most suited for Nigeria’s security landscape

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    1. Any drone can work for this. However, due to the nationwide approach to this, I recommend the cheapest drones which meet the required specs of the design

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  33. I must commend this excellently crafted work. This idea appears to hold significant promise, particularly in its potential to effectively address the issue of insecurity in Nigeria. However, I do have a query regarding its financial feasibility, particularly with regards to the implementation of autonomous cars. What would be your suggestions for securing the necessary funding at a national level for a project of this magnitude?

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    1. Thank you, Lu. Firstly, we as a nation must recognize the importance of having a nation where we are not afraid to live in. In most projects of this magnitude, funding comes from private institutions and loans facilitated by the federal government.

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  34. What are the infrastructure challenges in Nigeria for the smooth operation of autonomous vehicles?

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    1. Well, the dilapidated nature of some of our roads is my most concern. Second on my list is low signal rate due to environmental factors like tree obstruction, etc.

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  35. How will existing Nigerian laws be amended or new ones recommended to regulate the use of these technologies?

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  36. How will violations or misuse be prosecuted, and what legal protections will be in place for citizens?

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    1. Given that the autonomous cars and drones are engineered for surveillance, they inherently possess capabilities to detect misuse or violations against them. Legal penalties for such violations will be determined by Nigeria’s legislative bodies, after adoption by the federal government.

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  37. Are there synergies to be explored between these technologies and other security initiatives in this country

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    1. Combining Drones with CCTV: While stationary Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras capture events in specific locations, drones can offer mobility. Integrating drone footage with CCTV systems can provide security forces with a broader and more flexible surveillance network.

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  38. How will Nigeria handle maintenance especially given the specialized nature of these technologies?

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    1. Maintenance of the drones won’t be a problem given that Nigeria isn’t behind in the use of drones for logistics and we do have great mechanics in the country. However, specifics regarding new tech would require little training given to specific maintenance companies.

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  39. Combining Drones with CCTV: While stationary Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras capture events in specific locations, drones can offer mobility. Integrating drone footage with CCTV systems can provide security forces with a broader and more flexible surveillance network.

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  40. Are there current laws that need to be revised or new ones that need to be enacted to regulate the use of drones and autonomous cars for security?

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    1. Drone use had been on going in Nigeria for long now. However, I do think that proper laws should be in place to protect the data of citizens who provide information. As for autonomous cars, I do remember a Senate sitting where Send. Ben Murray Bruce proposed a bill to encourage the use and maintenance of autonomous vehicles, however for transportation in the country but was shut down by majority of the members

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  41. Good read!
    One question though, are there any international organizations that are partnering with Nigeria on this initiative?

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    1. Hopefully, for funding. After the Nigerian government has approved

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  42. What method did you use to perform this research?

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    1. My research was basically from existing literature

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  43. How will Nigeria’s electrical grid and power supply challenges impact the operation of these technologies?

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    1. Well, we must ensure dedicated energy sources for these technologies. Possibly even off grid

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  44. Applauding your idea, brilliant!!
    Although I have a question. To get these autonomous cars running efficiently in Nigeria, there is need for extensive infrastructure upgrades. Do you think the government has what it takes to make the necessary updates?

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    1. I strongly believe that the Nigerian government has the security of this country at the top of it’s agenda. With the right will power, this project can be achieved.

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  45. Because of the pressing need to solve Nigeria’s security issues, I’d suggest an immediate deployment of these technologies. The autonomous cars can be deployed in parts of the country where they can and drones in areas where autonomous cars seem inoperable

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  46. Are there cultural or social concerns related to these technologies that need to be addressed?

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    1. 100%. I worry that driverless cars would be a huge worry in the remotest parts of say Kaduna where there may be strong religious beliefs and low education.

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  47. Are there plans for public awareness campaigns or community dialogues related to the use of drones and autonomous cars for security?

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  48. How will the Nigerian government engage with communities and the general public to gain their trust in these technologies?

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  49. How will deployment of drones and autonomous cars impact the day to day lives of Nigerians?

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  50. How prevalent is insecurity in Nigeria and what forms does it take?

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  51. What are the current technological solutions employed in Nigeria for security measures?

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  52. How can Drones be integrated into Nigerians security infrastructure ?

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  53. In what ways can autonomous cars be used to address security challenges in Nigeria?

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  54. What are the technological limitations of using drones and autonomous cars for security in Nigeria?

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  55. How will Nigeria’s current infrastructure be upgraded or adapted to accommodate the widespread use of drones and autonomous cars

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  56. How do the costs of implementing drones and autonomous cars compare to traditional security measures in Nigeria?

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  57. What are the legal and ethical considerations when using drones and autonomous cars for security purposes

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  58. How can Nigeria ensure the responsible use of drones and autonomous cars without infringing on the privacy of the citizens.

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  59. Are there successful case studies or models from other countries that have effectively used drones and autonomous cars for security.

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  60. What potential collaborations could enhance the effectiveness of drones and autonomous cars in security operations?

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  61. How will the implementation of these technologies impact employment within the security sector in Nigeria?

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  62. Are there specific regions or terrains in Nigeria where drones and autonomous cars might be more effective?

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  63. How will the Nigerian economy benefit from the local production or maintenance of drones and autonomous cars, if considered?

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  64. How can Nigerians safe guard these technologies from being hacked or misused?

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  65. How will data collected by drones, autonomous cars be stored, processed and protected?

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    1. How can Nigeria ensure that the introduction of autonomous cars doesn’t escalate conflict or tensions in sensitive areas

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  66. Are there potential societal or cultural barriers in Nigeria that might hinder the adoption of these technologies for security purposes?

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  67. How do drones and autonomous cars compare to other surveillance technologies in terms of efficiency?

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  68. How do drones and autonomous cars cars complement existing security infrastructure in Nigeria

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  69. What are the technical specifications required for drones and autonomous cars to function optimally in Nigeria’s varied terrains?

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  70. How can local industry in Nigeria benefit from development and maintenance of drones and autonomous cars?

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  71. How will the introduction of these technologies affect Nigeria’s international relations, especially in terms of surveilance and border control?

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  72. What kind of data storage and processing infrastructure is needed to support the vast amounts of data generated by drones and autonomous cars?

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  73. What are the potential economic implications for Nigerian security sector with the integration of drones and autonomous cars ?

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  74. What is the estimated cost for Nigeria to implement this before 2024

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  75. What is the estimated cost for Nigeria to implement this before 2025

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    1. For this project to be realised, we could see the budget running into millions of dollars. This will be used to perform the following:
      Drone and autonomous car purchase
      Infrastructure including ground stations, communication infrastructure, software and data management, and many more.

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  76. How can transparency and accountability be maintained when drones and autonomous cars are deployed for security operations?

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    1. One way of assuring transparency is ensuring data collected by these technologies are readily available to any citizen who wishes to have them
      Also, by ensuring that citizen provided data are well protected

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  77. What kind of emergency response systems can be integrated with drones and autonomous cars to address immediate security threats?

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    1. This paper posits a design for the drones to perform only reconnaissance functions. However, the autonomous cars can perform immediate de-escalation or neutralization of threats using tasers, tear gas shots, etc

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  78. What long-term strategies are needed to ensure the sustainable use of drones and autonomous cars as key tools in Nigeria’s security infrastructure?

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  79. What type of security threats in Nigeria can be best addressed using drones and autonomous cars?

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  80. How will the data captured by these technologies be stored, processed and protected in Nigeria, given the concerns about data privacy and sovereignty?

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  81. What are the potential risks or united consequences of heavily relying on drones and autonomous cars for security in Nigeria?

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    1. I think the most important fear is their proneness to hacking. However, in remediation to this threat, I recommend access control methods. Also, that the storage device where these surveillance data are stored are embedded with GPS trackable devices.

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  82. Are there concerns about foreign interference or dependencies when relying on imported drone and autonomous car technologies?

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    1. Relying on imported drone and autonomous car technologies raises concerns of dependency on foreign suppliers, which can be a vulnerability in instances of strained international relations or trade restrictions. Additionally, these technologies collect significant data, and if the data management systems are foreign-controlled, it could pose risks to data privacy and national sovereignty, potentially allowing undue foreign influence or access to sensitive information.

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  83. How will the use of these technologies intersect with other security measures, such as physical barriers, checkpoints, or traditional surveillance methods?

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    1. In full operation, a synchronous operation of traditional surveillance and this technology will ensure that immediate interventions are carried out upon anomaly detection by either the drone or the autonomous car.

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  84. What public sentiment or resistance might arise against the use of drones and autonomous cars for surveillance, and ho can these concerns be addressed?

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  85. How will the success or effectiveness of these technologies be measured in the context of Nigeria’s security landscape?

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  86. How can local industries in Nigeria benefit from the development and maintenance of drones and autonomous cars?

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  87. What are the potential privacy concerns of using drones for security purpose in Nigeria?

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  88. How could autonomous cars reduce the Tisha associated with manned patrols or convoys in insecure areas?

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  89. What roles do local and international tech startups play in driving the innovation and adoption of these technologies in Nigeria?

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  90. How feasible is it for Nigeria to implement a widespread network of surveillance drones given its current technological infrastructure?

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  91. Good morning sir , i am very impressed with your research work in using this technology but my question is that currently most of the commercial drone don’t last up to 30min in the air !( Power challenge) I want to know how will you solved that problem , because if you are going to use the system how effective do you think it will be …..the point is can your drone last More 24hours in the air without shutting down

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    1. Good evening Nathaniel. Thank you for your question. It’s important to note the goodness in the use of machine learning algorithms as proposed in this paper. It is expected that upon prediction of attack zones and or hide outs in case of say banditry and kidnapping, the drones are not required to spend much time in the air for surveillance. Also, I also think the use of a hybrid system as seen in cars (electric and fuel) is feasible. Drones for this project will be more preferable if they have a miniature combustion engine in combination with their electric propulsion systems.

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    2. Another way of getting this done is ensuring that the materials that make up the drone are lightweight. Many measures can be taken to increase drone lifespan.

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  92. What types of security threats In Nigeria can be best addressed using drones and autonomous cars ?

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  93. How can Nigeria’s local tech talent be harnessed from the innovation and improvement of drones and autonomous car interchanges?

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  94. How can Nigeria’s local talent be harnessed from the innovation and improvement of drones and autonomous car interchanges

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    1. I’d say inviting foreign brands to our country to develop their factories. Also, local individuals or cooperatives who have the skill but lack the support, must be supported by our government.

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  95. Good evening Nathaniel. Thank you for your question. It’s important to note the goodness in the use of machine learning algorithms as proposed in this paper. It is expected that upon prediction of attack zones and or hide outs in case of say banditry and kidnapping, the drones are not required to spend much time in the air for surveillance. Also, I also think the use of a hybrid system as seen in cars (electric and fuel) is feasible. Drones for this project will be more preferable if they have a miniature combustion engine in combination with their electric propulsion systems.

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  96. Nice paper, actually.

    But how feasible is this in Nigeria?

    Considering the fact that this idea is not new, a lot of people recommended it already, why do you think Nigeria has not implemented it over the years?

    Plus, what makes this solution different from others’.

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    1. We have a government that lacks will power. However, I’d say the major impediment to the deployment of this technology may be the question “Where exactly do we deploy this?” And that is where the novelty of this paper comes in. Most cases of insecurity are predictable, however, citizen provided data makes them even more predictable. That’s what this paper ideally intends to achieve.

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  97. Your paper projects a 75% reduction in insecurity challenges, how did you come about that figure?

    Anything to back up your projection?

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    1. Well, yes. I ran a simulation on MATLAB using various drone and autonomous car advancement parameters coupled with previous insecurity data in Nigeria from 2018 to make projections. However, this paper is a proposal and actual figures can be obtained if experimental research is performed.

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      1. My bad. It was a python simulation.

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        1. Don’t you think you should have added it as an evidence?
          Maybe a screenshot of your simulation.

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          1. I only realized after submission that it should have been in appendix. However, I can provide the codes if given the opportunity.

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          2. However, the graph representing the simulation is in my paper.

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  98. Good job 

    As a collaborative security framework, which to an extent will work based on datasets. How do you intend to tackle detecting data manipulation, poisoning, or fooling in either of the systems making up the framework?

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    1. Manipulation and poisoning – an effective way of preventing this is using Media Access Control protocols specifically controlled access protocols like reservation, polling and token passing. This ensures that only data bearing hosts (i.e the drones and autonomous cars) in the security network are allowed to transmit data to the security base station.

      Fooling – to prevent this is simple although can never be 100% effective. I propose the use of firewalls to prevent outsiders from feeding foolish data and secondly penetration testing. I saw a love video not too long ago of Elon Musk testing a model of his Teslas. The Tesla ignored a traffic signal because it wasn’t trained with that data. This can be employed in the very rare case where the security of the technology fails. We can gather failure data and use it to train the system for actual and more important anomaly detection.

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      1. Good proposition. Kudos to you

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  99. Nice paper.
    But I feel you should have explored the existing body of literature and what new thing your paper is adding?

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